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A-Level Chemistry Resources

Physical Chemistry


Born–Haber cycles

Review: Relating Lattice, Solution and Hydration Enthalpies

Brief overview of the definitions for different types of enthalpy

Gibbs free-energy change, ∆G, and entropy change, ∆S

Rate Equations

Rate equations

Determination of rate equation

Equilibrium constant Kp for homogeneous systems

Electrode potentials and electrochemical cells

Electrode potentials and cells

Commercial applications of electrochemical cells

Acids and bases

Brønsted–Lowry acid–base equilibria in aqueous solution

The ionic product of water, Kw 

Weak acids and bases Ka for weak acids 

pH curves, titrations and indicators

Buffer action

Inorganic Chemistry

Properties of Period 3 elements and their oxides

The trends in the atomic and ionic radii of Period 3 elements

Transition metals

General properties of transition metals

Substitution reactions

Shapes of complex ions

Formation of coloured ions

Variable oxidation states


Reactions of ions in aqueous solution

Organic Chemistry

Optical isomerism

Aldehydes and ketones

Carboxylic acids and derivatives

Carboxylic acids and esters


Aromatic chemistry


Electrophilic substitution



Base properties

Nucleophilic properties


Condensation polymers

Biodegradability and disposal of polymers

Amino acids, proteins and DNA

Amino acids




Action of anticancer drugs

Organic synthesis

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy


Visualise the electronic configurations of the first 36 elements.

Visualise the electronic configurations of the first 36 elements.

Interactive periodic table from the Royal Society of Chemistry.