Linus Carl Pauling (1901-1994)
Pauling is one of the most influential scientists in history and is considered to be the father of modern chemistry.
He was awarded two Nobel Prizes - one for Chemistry (1954) and another for Peace (1962). During World War II he worked extensively with atomic energy projects while also advocating against nuclear weapons testing through public lectures and writings such as "No More War!" He was an outspoken advocate against nuclear weapons testing during the Cold War era, leading up to his second Nobel – the 1962 Peace prize. His activism extended beyond politics into environmentalism advocating sustainable development practices long before it became popularized by green movements today.
Pauling made significant contributions to our understanding of protein structure through his pioneering work on peptide bonds and amino acids
No More War by Linus Pauling
Anecdotes from the RSC - PDF transcript
Linus Pauling – Facts - NobelPrize.org - includes a link to Pauling's Nobel lecture