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# Born-Haber Cycles

Physical

A2

Born-Haber

AQA Content

###### Define each of the above terms and lattice enthalpy

###### Construct Born–Haber cycles to calculate lattice enthalpies using these enthalpy changes

###### Construct Born–Haber cycles to calculate one of the other enthalpy changes

###### Compare lattice enthalpies from Born–Haber cycles with those from calculations based on a perfect ionic model to provide evidence for covalent character in ionic compounds.

###### Cycles are used to calculate enthalpies of solution for ionic compounds from lattice enthalpies and enthalpies of hydration.

###### define the term enthalpy of hydration

###### Perform calculations of an enthalpy change using these cycles.

Specification Notes

###### Lattice enthalpy can be defined as either enthalpy of lattice dissociation or enthalpy of lattice formation.

###### Born–Haber cycles are used to calculate lattice enthalpies using the following data:

###### enthalpy of formation

###### ionisation energy

###### enthalpy of atomisation

###### bond enthalpy

###### electron affinity.

Notes

Links

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