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Outline the electrophilic substitution mechanisms of:
nitration, including the generation of the nitronium ion
acylation using AlCl3 as a catalyst.
Electrophilic attack on benzene rings results in substitution, limited to monosubstitution.
Nitration is an important step in synthesis, including the manufacture of explosives and the formation of amines.
Friedel–Crafts acylation reactions are also important steps in synthesis.
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