Updated: Jul 23
Volcanoes have the power to turn our world upside down. From Krakatoa in 1883 to Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD, some of the most devastating eruptions in history have come from volcanoes. In this article, we'll explore the most devastating volcanoes in history and their lasting effects.
Tambora, Indonesia 1815: The Volcano Felt Around The World
Tambora is a stratovolcano located on the island of Sumbawa in Indonesia. It is one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia, with records of eruptions dating back to 1512. Before the 1815 eruption, Tambora was estimated to have been around 4,300 meters high, making it one of the tallest mountains in Indonesia.
The Tambora Caldera (1)
On April 10th, 1815, Tambora erupted with an estimated force of 160 megatons. This is the equivalent of a 2,800-megaton nuclear bomb, making it the most powerful eruption in recorded history. The eruption created a plume of ash and dust that spread around the world, blocking out the sun and causing temperatures to drop in Europe and North America.
The eruption also produced pyroclastic flows (dense, fast-moving gas and volcanic matter), mudflows, and lahars (slurry of rock debris and water) that caused destruction and loss of life. An estimated 92,000 people died due to the eruption, making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in history.
The ash and dust produced by the eruption blocked out the sun and caused temperatures to drop around the world. The eruption also caused tsunamis and other oceanic disturbances. There were crop failures, famine, and death in Europe and North America and the year of the eruption became known as the “Year Without a Summer” - very much a global climate anomaly.
The 1883 Eruption of Krakatau, Indonesia
The 1883 eruption of Krakatau was one of the most catastrophic volcanic events in recorded history. Located in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra, the island of Krakatau was home to a volcano that erupted with devastating force in August of 1883. The eruption was heard thousands of miles away, and the resulting tsunami killed more than 36,000 people in the region.
Though the eruption itself lasted only a few days, the global effects of the event were felt for years. The volcanic ash, pumice and sulfur dioxide that were thrown into the atmosphere caused a significant drop in global temperatures for the following year, leading to crop failures in many parts of the world. The resulting “volcanic winter” would become one of the most studied climatic events of all time.
The 1883 eruption of Krakatau has been the subject of numerous scientific studies, and researchers continue to uncover new information about the event. In recent years, researchers have begun to explore the possibility that the eruption may have caused a shift in ocean currents, as well as the effects of the tsunami on local ecosystems.
The 1883 eruption of Krakatau was a tragic event that caused immense destruction and loss of life. However, it also provided an invaluable opportunity for scientists to study the effects of volcanic events on the global climate, as well as the devastating effects of tsunamis on coastal communities.
Mont Pelée, Martinique 1902
The eruption of this volcano on the French island of Martinique caused the destruction of the nearby city of Saint-Pierre, killing an estimated 30,000 people.
Pelée Mountain, Saint-Pierre, Martinique
The eruption was caused by a build-up of magma and gases in the volcano's magma chamber. The magma had been slowly building up for several centuries before finally erupting in 1902. The volcano released a deadly mix of ash, lava, and hot gases, which quickly engulfed the nearby city of Saint-Pierre.
The effects were devastating. The city of Saint-Pierre was almost completely destroyed, with only three survivors from the initial eruption. In addition to the destruction of the city, the eruption created a large tsunami, which caused more destruction to the island. The death toll from the eruption was estimated to be around 30,000 people.
Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia 1985
The eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia in 1985 lasted several days, and caused an estimated 23,000 deaths and tens of thousands of injuries.
The eruption was caused by a buildup of magma beneath the surface of the volcano, combined with the pressure of the surrounding glaciers. This created a situation where the magma was unable to escape and eventually caused the eruption.
In addition to the human cost, the eruption caused significant damage to the surrounding environment. Rivers were polluted with debris and ash, and large areas of forest were destroyed. The region is economically dependent on agriculture and tourism, both of which were dramatically affected by the eruption.
Unzen, Japan 1792
The eruption of the Unzen volcano on the island of Kyushu, in 1792, was the most destructive volcanic eruption to ever occur in Japan, killing thousands of people and destroying many villages. The eruption also caused significant damage to the environment, leading to the loss of much of the surrounding vegetation and animal life.
The eruption was caused by a combination of tectonic forces and magma pressure. The tectonic forces in the region were especially strong, causing the Earth's crust to become unstable. This instability triggered the magma pressure, leading to its dome swelling and then collapsing. This caused a massive landslide and tsunami killing an estimated 15,000 people.
Large amounts of ash and dust were released into the atmosphere, causing air pollution and reducing visibility. The eruption also caused significant damage to the vegetation in the area and destroyed much of the local wildlife.
The people living in the area were also affected by the eruption. Many villages and homes were destroyed, and hundreds of people were killed. People were also affected by air pollution and loss of vegetation and crops, leading to many deaths from starvation.
In order to prevent further eruptions, the Japanese government took a number of measures. They built a containment wall around the volcano to protect the surrounding area from any further eruptions. They also developed early warning systems to detect any potential eruptions and provide people with enough time to evacuate. Even today, the volcano regularly vents out releasing pyroclastic material.
Kelut, Indonesia 1586
Kelut (Kelud) is one of East Java's most active volcanoes and is infamous for its violent, explosive eruptions. The 1586 eruption marked a turning point in the region's history, as it had lasting effects on both the people and landscape of the area.
The initial explosion of Kelut caused a massive amount of ash and dust to be thrown into the atmosphere, resulting in a thick fog that spread over the region. This fog blocked out the sun and caused crops to fail, leading to a famine that lasted for months. Additionally, the eruption released a large amount of lava which buried villages and caused extensive damage to the land.
Kelut, Indonesia (3)
The eruption destroyed homes and livelihoods. People were fearful, the eruption was so unexpected and the local people had never seen anything like it before seen before.
Many people were forced to move away in search of new homes. Those that stayed were left with little in terms of resources and had to find new ways to make a living. This included trading goods with other villages, as well as engaging in new forms of agriculture and fishing that were not available before.
Lakagigar Eruption in Iceland 1783
The Lakagigar eruption lasted a total of eight months and had a profound impact on the environment and people of Iceland. It is estimated that over 10,000 people died as a result of the eruption, either directly or indirectly from starvation.
Laki, Iceland (4)
The eruption was so
powerful that it sent ash and toxic gases around the world, causing temperatures to drop and crop yields to suffer. It is believed that this event contributed to famines in Europe and North America for years after.
The effects of the eruption were felt for centuries afterwards. Volcanic ash still covers much of the landscape and the toxic gases caused by the eruption have been linked to many health problems in the area.
Volcanic eruptions are some of the most powerful and destructive forces in nature and their eruptions have caused immense destruction and loss of life. The Earth is still very much active and it's a guarantee that we'll see more devastating volcanoes in the future.
An alphabetical list of volcanoes can be found at: https://www.volcanodiscovery.com/volcanoes/alphabetical-list/a-z.html.
Wikipedia. 2022. "Mount Tambora." Wikimedia Foundation. Last modified December 28, 2022. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Tambora.
Wikipedia. 2022. "Mount Pelée." Wikimedia Foundation. Last modified December 12, 2022. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Pel%C3%A9e.
Wikipedia. 2022. "Kelud." Wikimedia Foundation. Last modified November 8, 2022. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelud.
Wikipedia. 2022. "Laki." Wikimedia Foundation. Last modified December 14, 2022. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laki.