// StartMathJax Script window.MathJax = {loader: {load: [ 'input/asciimath', 'ui/lazy', 'output/chtml', 'ui/menu']} }; (function() { var script = document.createElement('script'); script.src = "https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/mathjax@3/es5/startup.js"; script.async = true; document.head.appendChild(script); })(); ---------- (Different files) ---------- // UpdateTypeset Script config = { attributes: true, childList: true, subtree: true }; // Callback function to execute when mutations are observed callback = (mutationList, observer) => { for (mutation of mutationList) { if (mutation.type === 'childList') { console.log('A child node has been added or removed.'); MathJax.typeset(); } else if (mutation.type === 'attributes') { console.log(`The ${mutation.attributeName} attribute was modified.`); } } }; // Create an observer instance linked to the callback function observer = new MutationObserver(callback); document.onreadystatechange = () => { if (document.readyState === 'complete') { console.log("Loaded fully according to readyState") targetNode = document.getElementById('content-wrapper') console.log(targetNode) // Start observing the target node for configured mutations observer.observe(targetNode, config); } }
top of page

Theories of Acids and Bases

Updated: Apr 25, 2022

An overview of three theories used to describe acids and bases.

Arrhenius Theory

Arrhenius Acids - produce H+ ions in water H+(aq) Arrhenius Bases - produce OH– ions in water OH-(aq)

The theory explains the reaction between H+ and OH- to give water (neutralisation)


The definition is not applicable to:

  • a base that doesn’t contain OH– for example ammonia

  • species that are part of gaseous systems, such as hydrogen chloride

  • species that are insoluble.

Brønsted–Lowry Theory

THE definition for A Level Chemistry:

Brønsted acid - H+/proton donor Brønsted base - H+/proton acceptor

Much more general than the Arrhenius Theory

Species need not be soluble in water.

A Brønsted base doesn’t need to form OH-.

Lewis Theory

Lewis acids are electron pair acceptors Lewis bases are electron pair donors

There’s no need for the Lewis acid to form H+.

In the graphic above, NH3 is a Lewis base - the nitrogen in NH3 donates a lone pair of electrons.

28 views0 comments

Recent Posts

See All
bottom of page