1878 - 1968 aged 89
Meitner was of Jewish heritage and was forced to flee Nazi Germany in the 1930s. Although born in Austria, Meitner took Swedish citizenship after 1949. Meitner discovered nuclear fission and the element protactinium. She also discovered the Auger–Meitner effect and the Meitner–Hupfeld effect
Although her work led to the discovery of nuclear fusion, her collaborator Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with no credit given to Meitner.
The element meitnerium is named after her